• Characteristics of Dyslexiadyslexia-person reading image

    Students identified as having dyslexia typically experience primary difficulties in phonological awareness, including phonemic awareness and manipulation, single-word reading, reading fluency, and spelling. Consequences may include difficulties in reading comprehension and/or written expression. These difficulties in phonological awareness are unexpected for the student’s age and educational level and are not primarily the result of language difference factors. Additionally, there is often a family history of similar difficulties.

    The following are the primary reading/spelling characteristics of dyslexia:

    • Difficulty reading words in isolation
    • Difficulty accurately decoding unfamiliar words
    • Difficulty with oral reading (slow, inaccurate, or labored)
    • Difficulty spelling

    It is important to note that individuals demonstrate differences in degree of impairment.

    The reading/spelling characteristics are most often associated with the following:

    • Segmenting, blending, and manipulating sounds in words (phonemic awareness)
    • Learning the names of letters and their associated sounds
    • Holding information about sounds and words in memory (phonological memory)
    • Rapidly recalling the names of familiar objects, colors, or letters of the alphabet (rapid naming)

    Consequences of dyslexia may include the following:

    • Variable difficulty with aspects of reading comprehension
    • Variable difficulty with aspects of written language
    • A limited vocabulary growth due to reduced reading experience

    Source:  The Dyslexia Handbook, Revised 2014